MIXED GUILT IN THE CRIMINAL LAW OF UKRAINE: ITS TYPES AND IMPACT ON THE QUALIFICATION OF CRIMINAL OFFENSES
Type of articles
|Questions about the meaning of guilt in criminal law have long been resolved by the legislator, formulated in doctrine and confirmed by practice. The guilt of a person is a mandatory feature of both a criminal offense and the subjective side of its composition. In turn, the absence of guilt excludes the subjective side of the composition of the criminal offense, and therefore the basis of criminal liability specified in part 1 of article 2 of the Criminal Code of Ukraine.
The concept of guilt is defined by the criminal law in article 23 of the Criminal Code, as a person’s mental attitude towards the committed action or inaction provided for by the Criminal Code, expressed in the form of intent or negligence.
The corresponding definitions are contained in articles 24, 25 of the Criminal Code. Therefore, it directly follows from the law that there are only two forms of guilt in criminal law, which are divided into direct and indirect intent, and into criminally unlawful self‐ confidence and criminally unlawful negligence.
However, in some criminal offenses there is a specific subjective content, their subjective side is complicated due to the fact that the mental attitude of a person, which at the same time has signs of various forms of guilt, can be traced to individual objective signs of the composition of such acts. In these cases, in theory and in practice, they talk about the presence of so‐called “mixed” guilt.
The question of mixed guilt in criminal law is quite controversial, with conflicting approaches to its solution. In this article, the authors analyzed modern views on mixed guilt, its influence on the qualification of the committed act, considered various types of criminal offenses with a complicated subjective side, proposed certain algorithms for their differentiation and correct legal assessment.
Thanks to the conducted research, it was concluded that within the limits of the specific subjective side, inherent in some types of criminal offenses, there are at least three types of mental attitude of a person to the committed act and its consequences, which are expediently denoted by such terms as “double”, “complex” and “combined guilt”. At the same time, they should not be opposed to each other, because they reflect the peculiarities of the subjective side of one or another component of a criminal offense and in themselves are types of the broader concept of “mixed guilt”.
Thus, the article proposes to consider mixed guilt as a generic concept, which denotes a special, heterogeneous mental attitude of a person to the committed act and its consequences within the subjective side of the same composition of the criminal offense.
|the subjective side of the criminal offense, guilt, mixed guilt, double guilt, complex guilt, combined guilt|
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|Economic Theory and Law, 2023-1-87-104|
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