THE ISSUE OF CLARIFYING THE ESSENCE OF THE PROTECTIVE FUNCTION OF THE CRIMINAL LAW
|Economic theory; Law;|
|2020 - № 3 (42)||
Type of articles
|Problem setting. At the beginning of the 21st century, the science of criminal law continues to actively search for the fundamental basis to determine types of social relations being subject to the criminal law. Hence, contemporary tendencies of the development of jurisprudence require deepening the perception of the essence of functions of the criminal law as the basis for enhancing its notion, the content of an object of legal regulation, and, as a result, amending a list of social relations, which forms it. The protective function of the criminal law is of great importance within the context of the above-mentioned facts. It is embodied in a criminal policy of a government and influences the efficiency of combating crime and accomplishing goals of the criminal law.
Recent research and publication analysis. Numerous scientists have examined the issue on goals of the criminal law and its functions. Among them are Yu. V. Baulin, N. V. Genrih, N. F. Kuznietsova, O. V. Naden, M. I. Panov, A. A. Piontkovskyi, V. Ya. Tatsii, M. D. Sharhorodskyi, V. D. Filimonov, et al. However, a majority of scientific papers have inconsiderably researched issues regarding analysing the essence of the protective function of the criminal law and its interrelation with goals of the Criminal Code of Ukraine (CCU) enshrined in Part 1 of Article 1 of the CCU. Nevertheless, these issues assume significant importance for revamping the criminal law, which is currently occurring in our country.
Paper objective. The objective of this publication consists in analysing the essence of the protective function of the criminal law and methods of its influence on solving goals of the criminal law, applying thorough theoretical tools.
Paper main body. The interrelation between the state and person in the form of rights and obligations is a pivotal feature of the criminal law, which requires establishing the social interaction (social relations) between the aforementioned subjects within corresponding relations and is able to express their essence. There is a need to differ, firstly, relations, which induce the state to assume obligations to provide protection, and, secondly, relations, which entitle the state to undertake corresponding measures of the criminal coercion.
Precautions against (prevention of) crimes as a component (element) of the protective function of the criminal law may be considered, at least, at three levels. The first level of precautions is oriented towards overcoming the deficit of the social and positive (respect for the law) lawfulness as the main reasons of criminal violations. The second level of prevention is undertaken by law enforcement bodies and is related to deterrents against committing an offence enshrined in the legislation. The third level of precautions contemplates legal measures applied to a perpetrator in the process of the implementation of the criminal responsibility.
Indicating the essence of the protective function of the criminal law, lawyers should take into account the following assertions.
1. Objects of the criminal legal protection are safeguarded when they have been already trespassed, i.e. they are infringed, and require further measures of the state coercion. The nature of the state coercion is concerned with applying the CCU at the moment or after committing an offence.
2. Safeguarding objects of the criminal legal protection also occurs under the existence of a potential threat, namely in case of creating a real possibility of the infliction of the significant damage.
Conclusion of the research. Analysing the scientific literature and provisions of the current Criminal Code of Ukraine regarding the essence of the protective function of the criminal law has enabled to ascertain the following facts.
1. The protective function is deliberately the main one for the criminal law. It enables to connect a person, society, and government between each other in addressing an issue of the existence and development of the most important social relations.
2. The essence of the protective function is rather comprehensive. It comprises three components.
Firstly, it implies the protection of the most important social relations from criminal violations. The legal protection consists in an obligation of the government to react to committing an offence by a perpetrator (to punish him or her). Simultaneously, objects of the criminal legal protection are safeguarded when they are trespassed, as well as in case of a potential threat, i.e. if there is a real possibility of the infliction of the significant damage.
Secondly, precautions against (prevention of) crimes are integral part of the protective function. From the standpoint of this component, precautions are expressed in the form of imposing a punishment on persons, who have committed offences (special prevention) and measures regarding the avoidance of the trespass on social relations protected by the law on the part of other persons (general prevention).
The renewal of social relations violated (disrupted) in committing an offence and revival of social justice in the sphere of the rule of law are the third important component of the protective functions.
Short Abstract for an article
Abstract. Having examined contemporary juridical literature, the authors analyse the content of major doctrinal conceptions regarding determining the functional orientation of the criminal law, as well as consider the protective and regulatory functions of the criminal law. The authors have proven that the protective and regulatory functions together imply the essence and content of a mechanism of the criminal legal regulation. The authors have disclosed that the regulatory function primarily accomplishes tactic goals while the protective one ensures the normal existence of social relations and fosters their development. It is embodied in the criminal policy, i.e. activities of governmental agencies in fighting against crime and achieving goals of the criminal law.
The authors have ascertained that, from the standpoint of its essence, the protective function of the criminal law is more comprehensive than its contemporary definition in literature. This function consists of three elements: a) safeguarding social relations, which are protected by the law, from offences; b) precautions against (prevention of) committing crimes and c) renewal of social relations violated (disrupted) in committing an offence. Each of these elements aims at attaining own result in performing the protective function.
|protective function of the criminal law, regulatory function of criminal law, goals of criminal law, social relations, general prevention, special prevention.|
Article in PDF
|1. Baulin, Yu. V. (2018, September 7). Fundamentalni problemy kryminalnoi vidpovidalnosti [Fundamental problems of criminal liability]. In Yu. V. Baulin, & Yu. A. Ponomarenko (Eds.), Fundamentalni problemy kryminalnoi vidpovidalnosti: naukovyi poliloh – Fundamental problems of criminal liability: scientific polylogue. Kharkiv: Pravo [in Ukrainian].
2. Genrih, N. V. (2011). Predmet i metod ugolovno-pravovogo regulirovaniya [The subject and method of criminal law regulation] (Phd Thesis). Ryazan [in Russian].
3. Kuznetsova, N. F. & Tyazhkova, I. M. (Eds.). (1999). Kurs ugolovnogo prava. Obschaya chast: T. 1. Uchenie o prestuplenii [Criminal Law Course. General part. (Vol. 1. The doctrine of the crime)]. Moskva: ZERCALO [in Russian].
4. Naden, O. V. (2012). Teoretychni osnovy kryminalno-pravovoho rehuliuvannia v Ukraini [Theoretical foundations of criminal legal regulation in Ukraine]. Kharkiv: Pravo [in Ukrainian].
5. Panov, M. I. (2015). Vstup do navchalnoho kursu "Kryminalne pravo Ukrainy": lektsiia [Introduction to the training course "Criminal Law of Ukraine": lecture]. Kyiv: In Yure [in Ukrainian].
6. Panov, M. I., & Tykhyi, V. P. (2010). Uholovnaia otvetstvennost za sozdanye opasnosty [Criminal liability for creating a danger]. Vybrani naukovi pratsi z problem pravoznavstva – Selected scientific works on the problems of jurisprudence. Kyiv: In Yure [in Russian].
7. Piontkovskiy, A. A. (1958). K voprosu o vzaimootnoshenii obektivnogo i subektivnogo prava [To the question of the relationship of objective and subjective law]. Sovetskoye gosudarstvo i pravo – Soviet state and law, 5, 25–36 [in Russian].
8. Tatsii, V. Ya. (2018, September 7). Kryminalno-pravovi vidnosyny i kryminalna vidpovidalnist [Criminal law relations and criminal liability]. In Yu. V. Baulin, & Yu. A. Ponomarenko (Eds.), Fundamentalni problemy kryminalnoi vidpovidalnosti: naukovyi poliloh – Fundamental problems of criminal liability: scientific polylogue. Kharkiv: Pravo [in Ukrainian].
9. Filimonov, V. D. (2003). Ohranitelnaya funkciya ugolovnogo prava [The protective function of criminal law.]. St. Petersburg: Yurid. centr Press [in Russian].
10. Shargorodskiy, M. D. (1941). Predmet i sistema ugolovnogo prava [The subject and system of criminal law]. Sovetskoye gosudarstvo i prаvo – Soviet state and law, 4, 156 [in Russian].
11. Kryminalnyi kodeks Ukrainy [The Criminal Code of Ukraine]. (2001). Vidomosti Verkhovnoi Rady Ukrainy – Information of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, 25-26, 131. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/2341-1415 [in Ukrainian].
12. Zinchenko, I. O., & Shevchenko, Ye. V. (2017). Funktsii kryminalnoho prava ta yikh spivvidnoshennia iz funktsiiamy zakonu pro kryminalnu vidpovidalnist [The functions of criminal law and their correlation with the functions of the law on criminal liability]. Ekonomichna teoriia ta pravo – Economic Theory аnd Law, 3 (30), 171–185 [in Ukrainian].
13. Tatsii, V. Ya., Tiutiuhin, V. I. & Borysov, V. I. (Eds.). (2020). Kryminalne pravo Ukrainy. Zahalna chastyna: pidruchnyk [Criminal law of Ukraine. General part: textbook]. Kharkiv: Pravo [in Ukrainian].
14. Kozachenko, I. Ya., & Novoselov, H. P. (2019). Uholovnoe pravo. Obshchaia chast: uchebnyk dlia bakalavryata y spetsyalyteta [Criminal law. General part: textbook for undergraduate and specialty]. Moskva: Yurait [in Russian].
15. Baulin, Yu. V., & Ponomarenko, Yu. A. (Eds.). (2018, September 7). Fundamentalni problemy kryminalnoi vidpovidalnosti: naukovyi poliloh [Fundamental problems of criminal liability: scientific polylogue]. Kharkiv: Pravo [in Ukrainian].
16. Brainin, Ya. M. (1967). Ugolovnyy zakon i ego primeneniye [Criminal law and its application]. Moskva: Yurid. literatura [in Russian].
17. Shevchenko, Ye. (2019). A question on the state supremacy over the law: the context of reforming Ukraine’s criminal legislation. L’Europe Unie/United Europe: Journal – France and Romania, 14/14, 18–28.
18. Habermas, Yu. (1994). Primirenie cherez publichnoe upotreblenie razuma. Zamechaniya o politicheskom liberalizme Dzhona Roulsa [Reconciliation through the public use of the mind. Observations on Political Liberalism by John Rawls]. Voprosy filosofii – Questions of philosophy, 10, 53-67 [in Russian].
19. Voblikov, V. Yu. (2006). Pravoponimanie v sovremennoy rossiyskoy teorii prava [Legal Understanding in the Modern Russian Theory of Law]. Teoreticheskiy zhurnal “Credo” – Theoretical journal “Credo”, 6. Retrieved from http://credonew.ru/content/view/572/58/ [in Russian].
20. Russo, Zh.-Zh. (1998). Ob obshhestvennom dogovore [On the social contract.]. Ob obshhestvennom dogovore. Traktaty – On the social contract. Treatises. Moskva: Kanon-press [in Russian].
21. Kant, I. (1980). Konets vsego suschego. Traktatyi i pisma [The end of all things. Treatises and letters]. Moskva: Nauka [in Russian].
22. O neblagopoluchnom polozhenii s bezopasnostyu dvizheniya i o merah po ukrepleniyu distsiplinyi na zheleznodorozhnom transporte. Postanovlenie Soveta Ministrov SSSR ot 25.06.1951 № 2164 [On the unfavorable situation with traffic safety and on measures to strengthen discipline in railway transport. Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR dated June 25, 1951]. Zheleznodorozhnyiy transport SSSR. 1946-1955. –
Railway transport of the USSR. 1946-1955. [in Russian].
23. Kodeks Ukrainy pro administratyvni pravoporushennia vid 07.12.1984 r. № 8074-X. [Code of Ukraine on Administrative Offenses dated December 7, 1984]. Retrieved from https://zakon.rada.gov.ua/laws/show/80731-10#Text [in Ukrainian].
24. Dal, V. I. (1981-1982). Tolkovyj slovar zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyka [The intelligent dictionary of the living Great Russian language]. (Vol. 2). Moskva: Russkiy yazyik [in Russian].
25. Tagantsev, N. S. (1887). Lektsii po russkomu ugolovnomu pravu. Chast Obschaya. Vyip. 1. [Lectures on Russian Criminal Law. Part General. Issue 1]. Sankt-Peterburg: Gos. Tip. [in Russian].
26. Bekkaria, C. (2014). O prestupleniyah i nakazaniyah [Crimes and Punishments]. Kiev: In Yure [in Russian].
27. Dal, V. I. (1981-1982). Tolkovyiy slovar zhivogo velikorusskogo yazyika [The intelligent dictionary of the living Great Russian language]. (Vol. 1). Moskva: Russkiy yazyik [in Russian].
28. Matuzov, M. I. (1987). Pravovaya sistema i lichnost [Legal system and personality]. Saratov: Izd-vo Sarat. un-ta [in Russian].